Sunday, July 21, 2013


"We have more faith in what we imitate than in what we create." 

                                                                          - Bruce Lee

Bruce Lee died forty years ago today, but his legend has survived to near mythical proportions. Simply put Bruce Lee is one of the most important persons and Pop culture icons that ever lived. A man destined by fate to bridge the gaps between East and West. To celebrate his extraordinary life a new exhibit in Hong Kong opened this weekend, displaying rare images and items. Among these are a poem written along the banks of Lake Washington, sketches, photographs and writings ranging from deep philosophical lamentations to Nostradamus-like foresight of  how to develop gloves for future MMA sports leagues like the UFC. When Bruce Lee tragically died before the premiere of Enter the Dragon it sent shockwaves throughout the world. The film itself was a huge success and pretty much every teenage boy in America had a poster of Bruce Lee on his wall and a pair of nunchuks. Most of the times the chuks were homemade. Bruce Lee even Helped give another legend a break, when he introduced the world to karate champion Chuck Norris in Return of the Dragon. There wasn't any time for Chuck Norris jokes while Bruce and Chuck were fighting to the death in the ruins of the Roman coliseum. The fight was epic and paved the way for a lengthy career for "Walker, Texas Ranger". 



Bruce Lee also helped launch Jim Kelly's career. Kelly made his debut in Enter the Dragon, and as a cool brother wiTh an awesome afro, comedic acting chops and mad kung fu skills he quickly became an idol amongst the black youth. Kelly continued to make movies and used his fame and money by helping out and providing services to poverty stricken troubled teens of the inner city. Like Chuck Norris, Kelly's life was turned around by Karate.



While Bruce didn't get to enjoy the success of Enter the Dragon, future generations have rightfully hailed it as the greatest martial arts film ever made. Bruce was already filming his follow up to Dragon, a dream project he had total control over called Game of Death. While working on this film Lee mysteriously died from a sudden brain aneurism. The news of his death was shocking. It was hard to believe that the fittest man on the planet, he had only 1% body fat, could just collapse and die in the snap of a finger. Rumors began flying that Bruce was killed by the Chinese mafia, ancient curses, jealous lovers, allergic reactions or even a deadly batch of Nepalese Hash. Yes, the most shocking details to emerge from the death of Bruce Lee were the traces of Marijuana found in his stomach. Bruce Lee was many things. Father. Fighter. Philosopher. Teacher. Stoner?

These are the last days of Bruce Lee...
  
Before we talk about the day that Bruce Lee sadly passed away (Friday, July 20th, 1973), we must first take a look at what happened a couple of months earlier on May 10th, 1973. The same symptoms existed on both days i.e. brain edema (swelling of the brain). But on May 10th, they rushed Bruce straight to Baptist hospital and this is what saved Bruce's life as he was very close to death. As you will discover, the chain of events were certainly different on that fateful day, July 20th. Also, please note that Equagesic was not present on May 10th but cannabis indeed was but only a small quantity. Bruce Lee was the King of Hong Kong by this time. Every movie producer wanted Bruce Lee. He totally dominated the Mandarin film industry and other movies simply didn't get a look in on making huge amounts of money unless it starred Bruce Lee. Gung Fu masters didn't like Bruce because of his outspoken opinions on traditional martial arts and for passing on their secrets to Westerners. There was motive all round for someone or a group of people to take the life of Bruce Lee. It has been reported that the Triads were after the signature of Bruce Lee but he wouldn't join them or pay any money to them. So Bruce had enemies from all sides and was planning on moving back to the U.S. to live and make movies. But could the King of Hong Kong pack his bags and leave so easily? 

On May 10th, 1973, Bruce was in the studios of Golden Harvest at Hammer Hill Road where he was working in the dubbing room. It was extremely hot and humid in the studios that day and the fans were turned off because of the recording. Bruce excused himself and went to a nearby rest room. After twenty minutes, one of the studio employees went to see where Bruce was and on entering saw Bruce groping around on the floor pretending to find his glasses. Later, Bruce admitted to Dr. Peter Woo that he had chewed some Hashish leaves in the rest room and promptly fainted. When Bruce finally came back to the dubbing room, he again collapsed, where he vomited and his body began convulsing. Immediately, several men ran to Raymond Chow's office and informed him of Bruce's frightening condition. Instead of phoning an ambulance straight away, Chow phoned Dr. Charles Langford at Baptist hospital. Dr. Langford instructed Chow to transport Bruce to Baptist at once. Dr. Langford explains, "Lee was brought in by several men from his studio. He was suffering from high fever and was unconscious and unresponsive in the emergency room. First there were breathing noises, then they stopped. There was a series of convulsions. Three other doctors were summoned, including a neurosurgeon, Dr. Peter Woo. Lee was going through muscle contraction and relaxation. The entire body was involved in this motion, but the upper limbs gave us the most difficulty because he was very strong and was difficult to control. After the failure of Lee to respond for a period, and after waiting for the neurosurgeon to examine him, we gave him MANNITOL to reduce the swelling of the brain which we had detected. It took us one and a half hours to make Lee conscious. After Lee was revived, his eyes were moving to the right and left in a circular motion and his speech was slurred.

Mannitol is rarely used solely for the treatment of cerebral edema. Rather, it is an osmotic diuretic used primarily in barbiturate overdoses and to flush out the system of a potentially lethal excess of sodium, which many poisons can cause to collect in the victim's kidneys. It is this excess sodium buildup that produces the cerebral edema and convulsions, and it is for this reason that Dr. Langford administered Mannitol to Bruce Lee, specifically because Bruce was showing signs that he had been poisoned!

Two weeks later, Bruce traveled to the US to undergo a series of tests. On May 25th, he was examined by Dr. Harold L. Karpman. Although Bruce only weighed 125 pounds, Karpman found that Bruce was in superb physical health. Karpman then referred Bruce to a neurologist, Dr. David Reisbord. Working in collaboration with a team of colleagues at UCLA Medical Center, Reisbord came up with the final impression that Bruce had a convulsive disorder, grandmal, idiopathic. This simply said that Bruce was prone to generalized body convulsions whose cause was unknown. After Bruce was prescribed the drug Dilantin, a commonly used medication for the management of epilepsy, Dr. Reisbord gave Bruce a clean bill of health.


July 20th, 1973 - The Official Story

His wife Linda said that she left their Cumberland Road home and Bruce at around 1pm to have lunch with her good friend Rebu Hui. Linda said that Bruce told her that Raymond Chow was calling over at 2pm to go over "The Game of Death" script. Later, Bruce was going to dine with George Lazenby to ask him to appear in the movie. At around 2pm, Raymond arrived at Cumberland Road and around 4pm he and Bruce left to drive to Betty Ting Pei's flat at 67 Beacon Hill Road which is less than a mile away from Cumberland Road. At the flat, Raymond, Bruce and Betty went over the script details. Linda returned home at around 4pm presumably having just missed Bruce's and Raymond's departure. At around 7.30pm Bruce complained of a headache while still at Betty's flat and she gave him a single tablet of Equagesic and then Bruce went in to the bedroom to lie down. Ten minutes later, Raymond left to meet with George Lazenby at the Miramar Hotel. At around 9pm, Raymond phoned Betty asking why she and Bruce hadn't joined them for their dinner engagement. Betty then informed Raymond that she couldn't awaken Bruce. Concerned, Raymond returned to the flat at around 9.30pm. Although Bruce seemed to be sleeping peacefully, Raymond couldn't awaken him either. Worried, he phoned Betty's personal doctor, Chu Pho-hwye, whose line was busy. Finally after repeated attempts, they got through and Chu came over. Dr. Chu tried but couldn't awaken Bruce so someone called an ambulance and Bruce was rushed to Queen's Elizabeth Hospital. At around 10pm Raymond called Linda and told her to go to Queen's Elizabeth Hospital. Fifteen minutes later Bruce arrived by ambulance. Despite frantic attempts by a team of doctors to revive Bruce, Raymond Chow finally announced at around 11.30pm to the reporters that Bruce Lee was dead.




After the mourning Bruce was flown to America. Where he was buried in Seattle's Lakeview cemetery. Legendary actors Steve Mcqueen and James Coburn were some of his pallbearers. 

Just before the plane left Kai Tak Airport Linda told the following to the press.

"However the investigation is not yet closed to the death of my husband, I wish the press and the people of Hong Kong would stop speculating over the cause of death of my husband. I haven’t any suspicions than that Bruce has died naturally. I don’t blame myself or anybody else for that matter for his death. Our destination is unpredictable. The only irrelevant thing here is that Bruce has died and he will never return. He lives on in our memories and through his films. Please remember Bruce because of his talent, his art and the magic he gave us all. For those of you who knew him better, his words and thoughts will always be with us and will have influence on us for the rest of our lives. I know, that the people of Hong Kong loved Bruce and are very proud of him because of what he has achieved, he had managed to get worldwide attention for Hong Kong. That’s why I’m begging you to please leave him to rest in peace and do not disturb his soul. These are my personal feelings and wishes and that of my closest friends. I would appreciate it if you would listen to me and respect our wishes".



Inquest

On September 3rd, 1973, the inquest opened at Tsunwan before Coroner Egbert Tung. Linda said she left Cumberland Road and Bruce at about 12.30pm, and that her husband was fine and in a happy state. Linda said that he was meeting Raymond Chow to discuss a new film and then would be be having dinner later on and would not be coming home for dinner. At approximately 2pm, Chow called at Lee's Cumberland Road home, where the two men discussed the extensively re-written Game of Death script, before leaving for Betty's apartment to offer her a part in the movie. They arrived at about 4pm and talked for several hours over soft drinks before Lee complained of a headache. Betty gave him a prescription pain killing tablet called Equagesic and shortly after he went to bed.

At 7.30pm, Chow left the apartment to keep a dinner appointment with George Lazenby at the Miramar Hotel. Chow said that Bruce would see me in the restaurant and then went to the bedroom. I went to the washroom and after that I left. Chow said that Bruce took the tablet about half an hour after he complained of a headache (6.30pm?). During the evening Betty attempted twice to wake the sleeping Lee but failed to provoke any response. She telephoned Chow who returned to the apartment at around 9.30pm. To Chow, Lee appeared to be 'sleeping soundly', but even slaps to the face could not bring him to. Betty telephoned Dr. Chu who examined Lee and immediately called for an ambulance to take him to Queens Elizabeth Hospital.

On September 17th, his wife Linda took the stand and confirmed that her husband had taken cannabis but only occasionally and that there had been no after-effects. Dr. Ronald Lam testified that New Zealand lab tests had found only minute amounts of cannabis in Lee's stomach and intestine. Professor Ronald Teare of London University's Forensic Medicine Department, argued that he considered the cannabis found in Lee's body 'about as significant as if i had been told Lee had taken a cup of tea or coffee'. Dr. R.R. Lycette of the Queens Elizabeth Hospital suggested that hypersensitivity to Equagesic or Doloxene (prescribed after he injured his back in 1970) had triggered the seizure, causing Lee's brain to swell from a normal weight of 1,400 grammes to 1,575 grammes. Professor Teare supported the theory. Lee, he declared had died from 'acute cerebral edema (brain swelling), due to hypersensitivity to either meprobanate or aspirin or a combination of the two found in Equagesic.

On September 24th, 1973, Mr. Egbert Tung delivered a verdict of "Death by Misadventure."



Facts

  • The Star had reported on the day after Bruce's death (July 21st) that Raymond Chow said, "I rushed around to his home and it was decided he (Bruce) should go to hospital." That's funny because Bruce was at Betty's flat! Chow denied saying this at the inquest to a chorus of boos from the packed press benches.

  • On July 24th, The Star reported that Lee had died at Betty's flat and not at his home. Betty said, "On Friday night when he died i was not at home - i had gone out with my mother. I last met him several months ago when we came across each other in the street." Total lies!

  • In early August, police were called to investigate a suspicious brown paper parcel bearing the Chinese label: "Betty Ting knows the cause of Bruce Lee's death."
  •  Betty Ting Pei is a Taiwanese actress who was allegedly playing a leading role in "The Game of Death." Bruce was first introduced to Betty by Raymond Chow in the Summer of 1972 when he was working on "The Way of the Dragon." Within days, Bruce was quoted in the press as having said to Linda that Betty was "the one shining light on an otherwise dull film set," a highly unlikely remark in my opinion as Bruce was having a lot of fun on the making of "The Way of the Dragon." Bruce was further quoted, "Betty quite makes my day. She's a revelation with her cleverness." The fact of the matter is that Betty never had a part in "The Game of Death." Betty was Bruce's mistress. 



A few months before Bruce died, he tried to end the affair but only resumed it after Betty had tried to take her own life and was admitted to hospital. Friends of Betty who Felix Dennis talked to back in 1974 (author of "King of Kung Fu") openly confirmed that there was a romantic liaison between Bruce and Betty. Betty's neighbour informed the Hong Kong reporters that Bruce had been a regular weekly visitor to her apartment for months prior to his death.

Raymond Chow worked for Run Run Shaw until they had a bad parting of ways. Chow then formed his own film production company, "Golden Harvest" and signed Bruce Lee to a two picture deal ("The Big Boss" and "Fist of Fury"). Chow's and Lee's working relationship was far from easy after having co-formed "Concord Productions" for whom Bruce had made "The Way of the Dragon" and the unfinished "Game of Death." When the Golden Harvest fan magazine ran an article on the Chow/Lee relationship. Bruce responded angrily, "The article puts forth a notion that I am a brainless child who relies solely on Raymond. But I am not....instead I am my own boss and I have as much brains as others."

It is a well known fact that on the set of "Enter the Dragon" they were always arguing and George Lazenby has admitted near the end that Bruce couldn't stand the sight of Raymond Chow, never mind talk to him. Shortly before Bruce died, he wrote a letter to Run Run Shaw (Chow's worst enemy and main rival) to confirm that he had reserved three months (Sep-Nov 1973) to film a period picture for Shaw Bros. Chow would of been enraged at this proposal.





Bruce was also getting scripts sent from Warner Brothers. Chow could sense that he would be losing his greatest asset. Bruce allegedly punched him a few days before his death over the accounts of their "Concord Productions" film company. There has been talk that Bruce was taking Raymond Chow to court to end their partnership. Jackie Chan and other Bruce Lee stuntmen have confirmed that Bruce told them he was taking them to the U.S. where he would be working and setting up a new film company.

Apart from Bruce, the only person present on May 10th and July 20th was Raymond Chow. Why did Chow tell the press that Bruce was a very sick man months before his death when infact Bruce had had a full physical examination in May 1973 and was told that he had the body of an 18 year old. Chow also claimed that Bruce collapsed at his home in Cumberland Road until the press found out otherwise. He said on the night of July 20th, Bruce seemed to be 'sleeping soundly' and looked fine. So how come photos of Bruce in the morgue showed Bruce's face to be really badly swollen. From Dr. Chu's accounts, Bruce was already dead at this time so therefore he would of been looking like this but of course Chow claimed otherwise. Why are there so many lies from this man? What has he got to hide? Did he have a motive? Of course he had plenty. Did he have an opportunity? Many.

Others that had motives were the triads who had been trying to sign Bruce to a contract but he flatly refused their proposals. Other film producers as Bruce was monopolizing the whole Far East film Industry. Chinese Gung Fu masters who felt that Bruce was given all their secrets away to the West but I doubt this as many other Chinese had been teaching their art to Westerners.

Methods

  • Poison - Walk into any hospital emergency room and tell the attending physician that someone is exhibiting symptoms of cerebral edema and kidney failure, and immediately that physician will notify the Poison Control Centre. The reason he will do this is that cerebral edema combined with acute renal failure is a common sign of poisoning. See MANNITOL above. This would explain Bruce's May 10th mysterious blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test. On May 25th, nothing was found wrong with Bruce's health as explained above. Late Kenpo Grandmaster Ed Parker must have known this when shortly after Bruce's death he was quoted as saying, "Many of us do not know the inner thinking and secrets of the Chinese herbalists. They have herbs for medicine and they have ones we've never heard of for poison. I believe it was foul play that killed Bruce Lee."

  • Triad Gang Killing - At the public funeral which took place in Hong Kong on Wednesday, 25th July, 1973, Bruce face was heavily made up with make-up. Still the left hand side of Bruce face seemed to badly bruised. So was Bruce beaten to death and his body then dumped at Betty's flat. Remember the suspicious brown paper parcel bearing the Chinese label: "Betty Ting knows the cause of Bruce Lee's death." It says that she knows the cause but it doesn't say she knows who were the killers.

  • Hashish Fatal Reaction - Bruce was known to be using a strong unrefined Hashish from Nepal. Dr. Wu had conducted research which resulted in numerous cases of users in Nepal suffering from the effects of this drug. The doctors believe this was the cause of the brain edema and Bruce's death. Take a look at George Tan's documentary "Death by Misadventure" for further details.


Bruce Lee  never smoked marijuana, he only ate edibles. Which is probably the best and healthiest way to ingest cannabis.His widow Linda admitted in court that Bruce Lee frequently used marijuana as an alternative painkiller.

When the media first reported that Marijuana was in Bruce's system they quickly demonized it as the culprit of Bruce's sudden death. Of course, science has proven that it is impossible to die from weed so that theory quickly failed. A new theory proposed by Chicago Doctor James Filkins in 2006 suggests that Bruce died from an epileptic condition first recognized more than 20 years after his death. 

Bruce Lee historian and pal David Tadman detailed Bruce's experience with marijuana in a rare interview from 1983.

Q: I' m somewhat sketchy on the dates but can you tell me what year Bruce started using the hash/cannabis? I'm interested because they found it in his stomach at the autopsy. In your opinion was the death drug related?
DT: Bruce was introduced to Cannabis / hash in and around 1968-69 through a few people by the names of James Coburn, Steve McQueen and one other who I wont mention because he is a friend of mine and was an old student and friend of Bruce Lee's. To me, if Bruce were doing those types of drugs in 68-69, he would not pass away from those same drugs in 1973. Actually, that would make him the first ever who had passed away from those particular drugs. At least, that is what the Dr. report said. Now, that does not mean he could not overdose with those particular drugs, but that would be hard if it was at your own hands so to speak. I think you would actually fall asleep on cannabis before you, yourself, could take a lethal dose.

2/ Was the cerebral edema caused by an allergic reaction to a certain hash rather than from an equagesic tablet which he had taken for years and not on May 10th either when he had his first brain edema?

DT: I will state my belief and say that any edema was not caused by cannabis or pill. I believe something else caused the swelling.

3/ Was Bruce Lee's dramatic weight loss from 1972 to his death caused by using a bad form of Nepalese hash? Dr Peter Wu said that it was the only possible reason for his May 10th collapse and had apparently told Bruce to stop using it.

DT: My belief is that Bruce did not have any reaction to at least these following drugs, cannabis and or Hashish in any form. He was doing these drugs since the late 60's and obviously knew his limitations. He was also eating hashish brownies, so he knew the outcome of that form of use a swell. Let me just say if a doctor from the UK or United States said the cause of death was because of the use of these drugs, then I would have to agree, but the simple truth is, there has not been one professional doctor that is the head of any department here in the U.S. or European countries that claim Bruce's death was related to any drugs relating to the ones mentioned above. That does not mean that any certain foreign substance / chemical could have been added to what Bruce ingested without his knowledge. People take drugs all the time that have been laced with another foreign substance that gives them a reaction and the end result is either death or bad reaction that leaves them in the hospital emergency room. Lets just remember that Bruce was only sick in Hong Kong and not here in the U.S. He almost dies once and came here for a check up to the top doctor of neurology at UCLA, he happened to be Paul Heller's doctor, the producer of ETD. They found no cause for Bruce's almost passing a month previous when he was editing. I am sorry, but if you go into a coma and almost die and are very sick, and for week can't talk, or talk with a slur like you had a stroke, then when you come back to the States to be checked out by a top doctor and have numerous test and blood tests on top of that, and there is nothing found, then that means something is happening to you in the other place you live. If the cause of you passing out and almost passing away were serious then for sure they would have found something physically wrong with Bruce here at the top clinic located at UCLA at that time. Sorry to ramble on, but those are my feelings and according to the papers I have, those are the facts.


 "Be water my friend." ...






















25 comments:

  1. It is odd that a young chap at 33 years old would have that kind of problem. Wow!!!

    ReplyDelete
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  2. Bruce Lee might have been a mediocre actor but his fighting skills still remain second to none. His personality was a shining beacon of light and the world was a better place because of his all-to-short stay in it. I for one, still miss that Master of Gung Fu magic...

    Joe7000

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    1. I remember a small article on the British actress Sarah Miles, who has worked onstage with Lawrence Olivier, who is considered the best stage actor by many; his film acting has mixed reviews. However, Miles said that after viewing Enter the Dragon, she concluded that Lee was "the greatest actor she had ever seen ... such control, magnetism" ... I'm paraphrasing but that's the gist of her comments.

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  3. Just remember that the people or person that was responsible for Bruce's Death have to live with that for the rest of there lives. It effects them, in the mind, in there life with out them realizing it. Bruce Lives on as the greatest Martial artist ever!

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  4. I think there is a clue in the first part of this story. It may be a typo, 1% body fat is a death sentence in itself. Extreme athletes don't want to get much below 11%. Consider that the brain is primarily composed of fats, possibly starving here to the point of barely functioning and evidence of prior seizures. His body weight a mere 125lbs, body fat at 11% (assuming typo) that means that the painkiller (often fat soluble) would have maybe 10 times its scheduled effect. Someone better versed in pharmacology might comment further.

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  5. Dr. Google reveals:
    AVERAGE Male - weight 180 @ 20% bf = 36lbs BF
    B LEE weight 125 @ 10% bf = 12.5lbs BF
    Equagesic = meprobamate AND aspirin
    Thus Lee would get 3 times the effective dose of Aspirin (bleeding can occur)
    3 times the dose of meprobamate
    Wiki NOTE: Equagesic was discontinued in the United States, possibly because of its toxic profile and more adequate drugs available. Specifically, meprobamate is more toxic than benzodiazepines, which are also useful as a muscle relaxant.
    Martial artist Bruce Lee died of cerebral edema caused by allergic reaction to Equagesic, according to coroner examination. He died the 20th of July 1973 in Hong Kong.

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    1. There I was thinking I was the worst maths student in the class. Your point has merit but your numbers are off. Bruce had less than 1% body fat apparently and that leaves him with not much more than a kilo of fat in his body. Making his dosage of any drug primarily taken up through fatty tissue as being more than thirty times more and definitely significant.

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  6. Bruce Lee died in 1973, Betty married the biggest mafia in Hong Kong Film industry.

    I hereby attach the links, anyone interested shld get it translated,
    http://www.360doc.com/content/12/0905/12/7118691_234406628.shtml

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  7. I was a Bruce adorer when he died when I was 11. About 6 years later I nearly lost my life to heat stroke while in army basic training. First thing out of the box when I read this was a brand new set of issues I never knew about- Bruce had severe heat exhaustion bordering on heat stroke. Bruce- being nepoleonically self unregulatable and sorry bruce- Narcisistic; clearly is not one to allow he body to rest recover recuperate and even rebuild- and heat stroke chains a lot of unseen anvils to many divergent parts of the human physiology- and even though one may APPEAR asymptomatic- tremendous internal Errosion is taking place for many months and even years after. I can say this- Cannabis- as bruce would have used it would have been nill in its effects and certainly NOT qualify him as a 'stoner'- that is just plain insulting. And if he were a stoner- he still would be far more productive and in control of his sences than anyone around him, in fact I bet he would not long stay in the company of red eyed stoners and bongs.
    Bruce- who was endowed with more gifts and profound natures than most humans- was in need of one thing which became his greatest weakness, An Internal Governor. His Adomiintion to be as water- is an admonition he himself needed to slowdown and live by.
    I pray for his reincarnation to place him in a useful position for this world- as we really need him. I for one have felt so cheated by his loss; however- the more I have studied his death- and his Human weaknesses and foibles- the more I find to implement in myself in order to be as much value as I can to those who are in my sphere of influence- for as long as possible. hail bruce Dear Brother.

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  8. i really don't believe there was any conspiracy here. If any of of the accused (triads etc) had wanted to do away with Bruce Lee it would have happened long before he died. The pharmaceutical drugs he was taking (pain killers and anti-epileptic medication ) have well documented serious adverse effects and i think Bruce's metabolism and what has been stated about the efficacy of the pharmaceutical drugs is correct.

    The most telling of all is the near miss he had just months earlier. Of course it is plausible that something sinister happened , and it may have ' but my gut reaction is that this was just a unexpected tragedy brought on by multi-factorial events.

    btw . it is unfair to suggest that Bruce Lee was not a good actor , its true we came to know him for his brilliance in martial arts , but take the time to watch his earliest movies as a child (there were about 20 i believe) and you very much get the sense that he could have been an exceptional actor if he did not choose the martial arts role.

    His spirit is just too strong so you always get the sense he is still arounf


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    1. I agree that the collapse on 20th May is critical to understanding his death. At that time he was treated as a possible poisoning victim. We could only imagine that he may have lived if he had just stayed in California for a few months and rested. You know, the life of a superstar is very, very stressful; it's no wonder so many 'need' drugs. Imagine shooting a film. You wake up early in the morning, maybe 5AM or earlier. You sit around until you're scenes are ready. You stay until late at night, and then maybe you have to go to some event. You get maybe five hours sleep and then you have to do the same thing over again. Add that to what Bruce Lee was doing, the enormous physical strain -- even taking accidental shots to the head during scenes; on ETD fighting stupid extras; even fighting a serious challenger in a 'secret match' that was arranged by his friend, a chief on the Hong Kong police. And after he wraps a film, he plunges into the next one! All while continuing his grueling training schedule, probably running every day in the Hong Kong heat and humidity. Such a schedule would collapse any Olympic athlete. Btw, when I was fourteen I also collapsed from heat stroke when vacationing in a hot, humid climate... I was playing and running different stuff, and then finished it with racketball in the rain. I woke up in my bed. Luckily some of my cousins were doctors. So it's easy to see how Bruce Lee was under super stress, in addition to having many jealous cowardly enemies.

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  9. I recall an article with an actress who had worked with Lawrence Olivier; her first Bruce Lee film was Enter the Dragon (article doesn't mention other films) and she said that Lee was the greatest actor she had ever seen.... his presence, his magnetism, etc. Sorry I can't recall her name, but she was a 'name/serious' film and stage actress.

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  10. As for Bruce Lee's death, it seems he was a walking timebomb -- from his intense training and that 1% body fat; to prescribed mannitol possibly for poisoning. Was this 'poisoning' the result of outside causes or the ingestion of potent hashish. Remember that Lee's body was already weakened with those awesome mental, emotional and physical pressures he was enduring. As for triad fighters beating him to death and then depositing his body in Ting Pei's flat, that's an even bigger stretch. While I can't speak for all triads, I can say that a 'whole lot of them' respected Lee for bringing honor to the Chinese. Yeah, I know, how can gangsters have honor, it's a strange paradox, but one has to understand their mentality. To them, Bruce was the Man. It was well reported that on the set of ETD there was a lot of lower caste triads as stuntmen, and after a time they all revered him, because he would treat the average crew as well (or maybe better) than the executives. Prior to that, there is the story of a stuntman calling Lee out; he refused for days, but finally said OK, and beat the guy up, but changed it to a lesson, and the guy shook his hand. The following days the guy had vanished, and it was rumored he had been killed for disrespecting Lee. A final comment on his death: the trail is very cold by now. But the death of Brandon Lee is more straightforward, and there are quite definite points of murder. Coincidences pile on top of coincidences. The firearms expert just happens to be instructed not to come in that day, a first red flag; other firearms experts don't support the official story and so on.

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  11. Great article, like to add a further thought, I have read that Lee had his sweat glands removed from his armpits, if true it must have seriously impaired his body's attempt to keep to a safe temperature during exercise in warm climates. If body heat rises above 43 degrees Celsius, death occurs. Secondly, sweat removes toxins from the body and perhaps the system was inefficient because of this surgery, the other place toxins are stored is adipose fat and Lee can't have had much because he was so fit- just 1% the article says, so maybe brain swelling occurred because the body had no other way to deal with the toxin.

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  12. I have been a great follower of Bruce Lee all my life and have even patterned my way of fighting all my battles being physical and mental,and I am endeared to him and IP man for introducing this style of fighting and living.I'm sure all my righteous brothers (Wu-tang) would agree. Peace the great God AZ.

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  14. If you don’t know the potency of your medical marijuana strain, then how will you know if you are receiving the right dosage? Making sure you get accurate thc testing levels by using a super accurate testing kit will make sure that you know the potency of your medical marijuana strain so you know if it is too strong or too weak. I personally love the MyDx from CDx Life since it is not only portable, but extremely accurate. You can bring it everywhere with you and it’s super easy to use. It connects to your iOS or Android smartphone so you can carry the data anywhere you go.

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  15. Perhaps it wasn't two brain swellings brought on by hypersensitivity by anything in Bruce's stomach. Between Feb-Apr 1973 one month before the first swelling Bruce was fight choreographer on Enter the Dragon. Although he was not being hit by real blows , he can clearly be seen throwing his head back very hard to show the other actors how to make the recoil action of a screen punch look realistic for the camera (For evidence of this please view behind the scenes of ETD Warner Bros featurette.)On the set of Golden Harvest during this filming he was doing this head throwback movement many ,many times to instruct individual actors/stuntmen to sell the 'strike to the camera. Was he doing this head -throwback movement not just continuously but with the same committed kinetic force with which he threw his blows ? Bruce was the most hyper- kinetic human being who ever lived on this earth.He expressed this in all his physical manifestation, punches ,kicks AND head throwback. How many times did he throw his head back ? Count the number of stuntmen he was getting to do likewise to sell the strikes and multiply it by the number of perfectionist retakes. This head movement might have had a disastrous cumulative effect and delayed reaction leading to his tragedy. Anatomically the brain is not physically fixed inside the skull. There have been medical cases where heavy metal music listeners indulging in head shaking (Wayne's World 'headbanging') have died from brain edema showing similar symptoms to Bruce (No external injuries , stomach contents irrelevant to swelling etc.) This autopsy prescience did not exist in 1973 when R D Teare carried out the autopsy. Could poor Bruce's own unique kinetic force which he focused through his limbs have unwittingly been put into throwing his head back which had a cumulative effect leading to these horrible brain swellings which took his life ?! Such a hypothesis would not only explain BOTH 10th May and 20th July swellings but would do so in perfect timeline chronological order which fits perfectly in a way which Equigesic or hashish hypotheses could not possibly do. Bruce was unique, God love the poor genius. This doesn't change all his greatness, physical brilliance and fantastic insights. Perhaps he was so unique that the only thing that could kill Bruce Lee was, ironically, Bruce Lee. Perhaps he was so committed to making the scenes in ETD the most hyper kinetic unarmed combat sequences ever put on film that he died doing it bless him. He lived for martial art down to the marrow of his bones. In selling it and showing it to the world perhaps he gave his life for it. Literally. For this alone he deserves to be immortal.

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    1. That's a really great insight. The head snapping would certainly be unhealthy; perhaps similar to the 'mini concussions' that football players receive over the course of their careers, some estimate thousands of times. One concussion is considered dangerous; not only Lee's head-snapping, but it's been said that he did receive some 'hard shots' to the head accidentally when filming fight scenes. He also hit Jackie Chan accidentally with a pole, and apologized mightily. He promised to include Chan in his next film as an additional apology.

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    2. I suppose all those other actors and stunt men are dead too huh?

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    3. Well, all those other actors and stuntmen weren't throwing their heads back with the frequency Bruce was on the set of Enter the Dragon showing all those extras how to do it. Nor were any of them throwing their heads back with the same kinetic velocity with which Bruce was throwing his punches. For evidence of this go see behind the scenes ETD footage and some of his scenes in ETD. Don't just respond to the comment on July 14 read the detailed posts before it and after it. If you can find any logical flaws in any of it I would welcome criticism ok. Only way to explore an issue.

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    4. Each of the other actors and stuntmen on Enter the Dragon each had to throw their head back to sell the strike in front of the camera JUST ONCE on cue. Bruce Lee as THE FIGHT CHOREOGRAPHER was throwing his head back HUNDREDS of times ! Showing each stuntman individually HOW TO. He was doing this VERY HARD (see behind the scenes footage) and cumulatively it may have made the brain move inside the skull to bring on delayed reaction cerebral edema( 10th May, 20th July) There have been other autopsies where violent head movement has caused edemas. This would not apply to 'mini concussions' in football players obviously, nor to stuntmen on movie sets with general wear and tear. But Bruce's kinetic force was UNIQUELY POWERFUL. He was using it to throw his head back VERY HARD and VERY FREQUENTLY. Unique physical force can unfortunately create tragically unique consequences.

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  16. Yes you're right about the accidental hard shots he occasionally received. I remember Jim Kelly going into this in interviews decades after Bruce's death. There are a number of interviews and film footage to watch which could confirm my hypothesis about this head throwback movement having cumulative effect towards cerebral edema. See Jim Kelly interview in the documentary 'Death by Misadventure' where he recounts how Bruce was showing him how to throw his head back to make a 'blow' look realistic. View the dvd 'I am Bruce Lee' where in the dvd extras Dan Inosanto expounds on the recoil action of the 'recipient' being as important as the 'striker' to sell the blow to the camera. And then comes for me the real evidence. There is a featurette 8mm film footage probably as an extra on Enter the Dragon dvd where Bruce is choreographing the stuntmen in'the battle with the guards when his character is holding a wooden staff when surrounded by opponents. As Bruce instructs the actors watch as he throws a punch and see what then happens. Play it on your dvd player in slow motion. He throws his head back so hard that you can see on this footage his cheeks rippling like aircraft test pilots in G - force centrifuge machines ! He threw his head back the same way he threw his punches - harder than anyone else alive ! If you want to see real evidence of this take out a dvd of Enter the Dragon , cue it to the final all out battle scene before Bruce goes indoors after Han. There is a moment just after Han's tiger claw gets stuck in some wood when Bruce's character gets hit by an incoming surprise punch. When you cue this moment on your dvd player play it in slow motion to watch the power of Bruce's head recoil. He throws his head so hard he nearly decapitates himself ! Watch it in slo-mo and see for yourself. How could the centrifugal force he's generating fail to make his brain move inside his skull when anatomically it is not fixed inside it ?
    The damage he's doing could actually be greater than an accidental real punch as the recoil action from a real blow is actually less enormous than the kinetic force with which he's throwing his head back in this footage ! Forget equigesic hypersensitivities, hashish, triads ,idiotic curses and spells which defy the laws of physics, chemistry and biology. The evidence of what took poor Bruce's life is staring everyone in the face right on this film footage and eyewitness testimony. Here is a hypothesis which fits the data and explains Both brain swellings on the 10th May and 20th July and does so in perfect timeline chronological sequence in a way the other alternatives could not possibly accomplish. Plus it does it within the laws of kinetics and physics. It's an 'economic' theory(Occam's razor') ie not multiplying first principles beyond strict necessity. It explains why there were no external bruises on his head after the autopsy. And it explains why these horrible brain swellings after the shooting of ETD became intermittent and eventually fatal between 10th May (First swelling) and 20th July (second fatal one). Poor Bruce, God love him. Whatever the cause of his tragic demise we won't forget his skill, his insights and uniqueness.

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  17. You say "It is this excess sodium buildup that produces the cerebral edema and convulsions, and it is for this reason that Dr. Langford administered Mannitol to Bruce Lee, specifically because Bruce was showing signs that he had been poisoned!

    Two weeks later, Bruce traveled to the US to undergo a series of tests. On May 25th, he was examined by Dr. Harold L. Karpman. Although Bruce only weighed 125 pounds, Karpman found that Bruce was in superb physical health. "

    If Dr. Langford gave bruce Manitol because he believed bruce was poisoned, would he not tell bruce
    about it? Since when Doctor's don't tell patients the truth? and if he did tell bruce about the
    possibility of poison, why would bruce go to US to check his health? Someone is poisoning you and
    you go to see a best Doctor to check out your health?

    Sorry but the story odes not make sense!

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