Lost in the Afterlife: Famous Missing Graves



 


King Antiochus I



At 2,000 metres up, the orange, tawny mountain has given way to an arid landscape. The scene is beautiful, the views over the Anatolian countryside spectacular. But you’re not alone – alongside you are the giant statues of ancient gods – enormous heads and bodies sitting silently sentinel, surveying surrounding scenery. These statues were ordered by King Antiochus of Commagene in the 1st century BC, and stood undisturbed and forgotten for centuries afterwards, only redisvovered in 1851. The most remarkable feature of the Mount Nemrut, a place in antiquity where "the humans met the Gods" are the giant stone heads of ancient gods and a what is thought to be the king. The stone heads now look like they have been chopped off and put on the ground, but they were probably part of a pantheon misplaced by earthquakes. Another phenomenon at Mount Nemrut is a 150 feet high and 500 feet wide conical peek, made of limestone rocks. It is said to be the king’s tomb, although no grave has ever been found there.

For many centuries, this region was part of Mesopotamian culture and the mysterious kingdom of Urartu, which was destroyed by invading Arian tribes like the Scythians, Medes and Proto-Armenian speaking tribes. It is well known that these ancient civilizations had remarkable knowledge of the stars and constellations.  At Mount Nemrut, the same knowledge is evident. Figures on the site, for example a lion with a star constellation on its body, suggest that the builders knew what they were doing.

These phenomena are explained by saying that a first-century BC king had deep knowledge of these ancient cultures. The king supposedly was in contact with eastern priests who posessed secret knowledge about the stars written on hidden Sumerian clay tablets. He called himself ‘Theos’ or ‘God’ for creating the site and a new local cult or religion. The king depicted himself among the gods and shaking hands with them.

In fact it was (and is) not uncommon for later rulers to claim ownership of the remains of older, ancient cultures. How could one king have built all of the structures on Mount Nemrut in a short period of time, and why in such a difficult, high place? It is more likely that the structures are much older, from Sumerian or Urartian times, or even older than that. In those ancient times, it is thought that aliens helped build such sites with advanced techniques. There are caves or tunnels on the Mount Nemrut site, that seem to have no purpose but to allow the sun rays to shine straight through at specific moments. Could there have been a stargate? Was Mount Nemrut a hub for space travellers? If so, the ancient builders must have left in the same way, and that is the reason why there is no graves. The long lost tomb of the "semi-divine" Antiochus I is supposedly buried at the bottom of the newly discovered pyramid that houses the complex. However, the Turkish government has denied any archeological team from excavating the area.


 Attila the Hun



Long before dudes like Genghis Khan made it routine for a rampaging horde of steppe nomads to ride into Europe on an army of man-eating horses, crushing their enemies before them, hacking off more limbs than a malfunctioning piece of Industrial Revolution machinery and reducing over-populated metropolises to steaming piles of charred ash and carrion, there was Attila the Hun - the Original Gangster of Central Asian barbarian warlords and one of the toughest to ever tie on a fur cloak, slap an old lady in the face and trample some unsuspecting dumbass villagers with his horse. A man so renowned for his bloodlust, ruthless determination, and merciless, unstoppable asskicking powers that his enemies in Western Europe simply referred to him with one incredibly badass nickname:  The Scourge of God.
Attila and his brother inherited the Hun Empire in 433 after their father died for some reason nobody gives a shit about.  Not much is known about the Empire at the time of Attila's ascension to the throne, but it is believed to have stretched from the Russian steppe to the Danube River in Eastern Europe.  Or something.  Attila's first move as the kind, benevolent ruler of his people was to walk up to the Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, metaphorically bitch-slap him in the fucking face with his dick, and demand that the Byzantines pay the Huns a tribute of 600 pounds of gold every year as sort of a "please God don't let the bad men hurt us" tax.  Well 600 pounds of gold is pretty much a fucking shitload of gold, and after a couple years of this the Byzantine Emperor suddenly got sick of Attila's bullshit and decided to grow a pair.  Emperor Dumbass used his newly-discovered power of testosterone generation to tell Attila him to go hump himself with a rusty coat hanger.  Attila responded by cracking his knuckles, mobilizing his army, and marching a screaming horde of pissed-off motherfuckers across the Danube River in 440 CE for the sole purpose of causing enough chaos and destruction to make the L.A. riots look like Family Day at Fantasy Land.
The Huns pillaged villages and towns all across Eastern Europe in a mad rampage of destruction and relentless assbeatings.  Many cities, including Belgrade, were obliterated;  Their populations were either sold into slavery or stabbed in the balls and left for dead, the empty buildings were looted and then burned to the ground, and the ashes were urinated on by drunk homeless people.  For two years, Attila's men ravaged the countryside like an army of pissed-off repressed middle-class soccer moms assaulting a 90%-off clearance rack at Macy's.  Once they'd killed everyone they could find and stolen anything that wasn't bolted to the floor by six-inch nails, steel rivets and two tons of sold concrete, they turned their attention East towards the Byzantine capital of Constantinople.  The city was surrounded, the Eastern Roman Army was shattered, and the Byzantines were pretty much royally fucked.  The Huns didn't really have the technology or the manpower to capture the heavily fortified city, so instead Atilla went up and down the countryside searching for any Byzantine Army units that hadn't already been annihilated by his badass wildmen.  Eventually, the Emperor in Constantinople surrendered, paid The Scourge of God 6,000 pounds of gold in small, unmarked, non-consecutive bills and agreed to triple the Don't Kick My Ass Tax.  For Attila, this was all he needed to hear.  He wasn't interested in owning huge expanses of territory, governing citizens, passing laws or doing any of that other City Hall bureaucracy bullshit paperwork - as long as his enemies were willing to pay him a shitload of gold not to kick their fucking asses, he was more than happy with the knowledge that he had made them all his bitches.
Attila returned home, and within a few years his brother died of mysterious causes.  I'll give you two guesses who may have been behind it.  This "unfortunate incident" put power and rule over the Empire firmly in the ever-clenched, face-smashing iron fist of Attila.  He chilled out in Hungary for a while, drinking Hennessey on top of gigantic piles of gold coins and half-naked European babes until the year 447, when once again the Byzantine Empire thought it would be really fucking hilarious to stop paying tribute to the Huns. Attila didn't even think about it - he just got his men together and stomped nuts across the Eastern Roman Empire, sacking cities throughout the Balkan provinces and shoving his foot up the ass of anybody not currently on his payroll. After another two years of getting their faces pummeled in and having their population wiped out quicker than an onset of the Bubonic Plague, the Byzantines once again surrendered and agreed to pay even more tribute. The secret to the Huns asskicking skills lie in the fact that they were completely balls-out all of the time.  The entire army was mounted on horseback, allowing them to travel and maneuver at speeds far greater than their enemies could hope to achieve.  On top of that, they used composite bows - powerful, long-range weapons that were pretty much the Cruise Missiles of Antiquity - and they could fire those bastards with deadly accuracy while charging at a full gallop.  Their strategy was first to fly in, launch a couple of volleys of arrows, then fade away before the other guys even knew what the fuck was going on.  While the enemy was still in disarray, the Huns would circle around, fire another volley, and then charge full-speed while yelling blood-curdling insane battle cries that made most of their opponent piss themselves with pure liquid terror. They also used nets and lassos to bind their enemies before hacking them up with swords or stabbing them in the eye with their spears, which is pretty sweet.
In 451, the Hun hordes blitzed through German and Austria, crushing all opposition, pillaging countless villages and crossing the Rhine into Gaul, where Attila sacked every town he came across and whipped the ass of any Visigoth warriors standing in his way.  The skies above France were clouded with the black smoke of dozens of smoldering villages as the entire countryside pretty much became one giant raging inferno of suck. Even though the Visigoths and the Romans hated each other worse than the Red Sox and the Yankees, they eventually realized that they needed to join forces or they were all going to get personally sacked by a swift boot to the groin from Attila the Asskicker and his legion of bloodthirsty psychos. A gigantic combined army comprised of the best warriors the Visigoths and Romans had to offer was assembled to chase Attila across Gaul.  
They eventually caught up to him while he was in the middle of razing the city of Orleans, and the surprise attack forced the Hun invaders to withdraw.  Atilla met the European army in a full-scale holy shit battle outside the town of Chalons to determine the fate of the West, but in a brutal battle resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of warriors on both sides, including the Visigoth King, Attila's army was narrowly defeated by the Allies.  It would be the warlord's only documented defeat on the field of battle in his twenty-year career as a professional face-smashing conqueror.
The Huns looted Aquileia, Padua, and Milan before pressing on towards Ravenna and Rome, ball-knocking the Italian cities while Rome's armies were off celebrating their triumphant victory back in Gaul and getting backrubs and massages from loose Visigothic women.  The only thing that kept Attila from conquering all of Italy was a delegation led by Pope Leo the Great, who came out at the head of a massive Roman Embassy that basically pleaded and begged Attila for mercy.  The Hunnic King finally was like, "fine, fuck it whatever, assholes.  I don't have time for this.  I'm fucking out of here", and headed back home.  He died in 453, shortly after returning to his palace.  He had just gotten married to some other random chick, and drank so much at the after-party that he choked to death on his own blood like some kind of awesome 1970s rock star.  He was buried in a massive sarcophagus along with all of his worldy treasures, and then the tomb-builders were executed so that the secret location of his grave would never be discovered. To this day, it remains lost in time.

 Mark Antony and Cleopatra 





Cleopatra may be lost in the sands of Egypt forever. Ancient historian Plutarch wrote that she was buried with Mark Antony in an undisclosed location, and if we didn't have that vague piece of information, the scavenger hunt for the Queen of the Nile would be even more impossible. Some evidence seems to show that she had a tomb built for herself prior to her death by asp, and that tomb is now resting on the ocean floor with the rest of ancient Alexandria. On the other hand, recent excavations at the Taposiris Magna temple in Abusir, Egypt, may point to the famous couple being buried there. 



 Boudicca



First there was Richard III. Then, in the early hours of Monday morning, with the exhumation of bones from an unmarked grave at St Bartholemew’s Church in Winchester, archaeologists came closer to unravelling one of the great mysteries of British history – the burial place of King Alfred the Great.


These are exciting times in the field of historical bone-hunting, and senior archaeologists believe we could be in for a flood of new discoveries in the next few years as technology improves and the number of amateur enthusiasts continues to grow.
While the Winchester skeleton awaits scientific tests to see if it is Alfred, the ninth-century monarch revered for his victories over the Danes, speculation is now rife as to which historical riddle will be solved next.

At least some of the smart money is on Boudicca, whose army led an uprising against the Romans and razed London in the first century AD. The grave of warrior queen, who fought the Romans to defend Britain, is unknown - although it is thought that her bones lay near what is now a McDonald's in Birmingham. Another theory suggests that the flame-haired leader of the Iceni lies beneath either platform eight, nine or 10 at King's Cross Station.

 Ovid





Ovid was a prolific Roman poet whose writing influenced Chaucer, Shakespeare, Dante, and Milton. As those men knew, to understand the corpus of Greco-Roman mythology requires familiarity with Ovid's Metamorphoses. In 8 AD, Ovid's poetry got him banished to Tomis, on the Black Sea, by the exclusive intervention of the Emperor Augustus, without any participation of the Senate or of any Roman judge, an event which would shape all of his following poetry. Ovid wrote that the reason for his exile was carmen et error - "a poem and a mistake", claiming that his crime was worse than murder,more harmful than poetry. The Emperor's grandchildren, Agrippa Postumus and Julia the Younger, were banished around the time of his banishment; Julia's husband, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, was put to death for conspiracy against Augustus, a conspiracy about which Ovid might have known.

The Julian Marriage Laws of 18 BC, which promoted monogamous marriage to increase the population's birth rate, were fresh in the Roman mind. Ovid's writing in the Ars Amatoria concerned the serious crime of adultery, and he may have been banished for these works which appeared subversive to the emperor's moral legislation. However, because of the long distance of time between the publication of this work (1 BC) and the exile (8 AD), some authors suggest that Augustus used the poem as a mere justification for something more personal.

It was during this period of exile - more properly known as a relegation - that Ovid wrote two more collections of poems, called Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto, which illustrate his sadness and desolation away from Rome. Even though he was friendly with the natives of Tomis, he still pined for Rome and his beloved third wife. Many of the poems are addressed to her, but also to Augustus, whom he calls Caesar and sometimes God, to himself, and even sometimes to the poems themselves, which expresses his heart-felt solitude. The famous first two lines of the Tristia demonstrate the poet's misery from the start. Ovid died at Tomis in AD 17. It is thought that the Fasti, which he spent time revising, were published posthumously. He was allegedly buried a few kilometers away in a nearby town. In 1930 that town was renamed Ovidiu in his honor. However his tomb or gravesite have never been located. His tomb's discovery had been mistakenly reported a few times before inspiring a lengthy examination by prominent scholar J.B. Trapp:
In his study, professor Trapp wishes to follow the history of the monumental tomb allegedly erected by public funding to the exiled poet, due to his tragic, but apotheotic ending. Not only the grave travels along vast spaces, but Tomis itself is diversely located during the Renaissance centuries. The imagination of modern Latinlanguage poets and of humanists have played an important role, sometimes even exclusive, in the formation and transformation of legends. Mr Trapp shows that from the Black Sea shores the tomb "travels" North, to Poland, then to Hungary; some looked for it at Sulmona, others in Rome, where they thought they really found it... People argued and "demonstrated" that Ovid had died at Savaria (Szombathely) on his way back to Italy; the fact that he mentioned the Sarmatians (who were not in Dobrudja at that time) and the fact that the Sarmatians were considered the ancestors of the Polish, makes the latter consider Ovid their first national poet. In Rome, the tomb of the Nasso family, discovered in 1675 and dated about mid 2nd century, A.C., is considered the poet's tomb just because it was on the place (where via Flaminia crossed via Claudia) where the poet seemed to have had a suburb villa with a garden (Epistulae ex Ponto, I, VII, 4346: "the gardens from which one can see the crossing of via Flaminia and via Claudia"). Researching the Romanian bibliography, professor Trapp found that Miron Costin considered that Ovid's place of exile was Ce­tatea Albă, and Dimitrie Cantemir located it either there or at Chilia, while Kogălniceanu transferred it from Tomis to Cetatea Albă. The Russian legends also point to Cetatea Albă, next to which stands to the date the town of Odiviopol, where traces of ancient buildings were digged out (it is not clear whether they are only Greek or also Roman). The British scientist's study is an exhaustive research model; his pur­pose is not to de facto find the monumental tomb of Ovid, in Tomis or elsewhere. Therefore, let us state shortly our own opinion on this matter.
Ovid was exiled to Tomis in A.D. 8. He was introduced to the court of Augustus by Fabia, the poet's third wife. His verses were enormously successful, and Ovid was loved by the Roman high society. And then came those "carmen et error", the cause of his exile. "Carmen", most probably Ars amatoria, must have been the official pretext for the punishment. As to "error", one may think it must have been a politi­caldynastic issue. Ovid's relationship with Julia (daughter to Julia, the daughter of Augustus and Agrippa) made Augustus send his niece into exile on the island of Trimerus, offshore Apulia (where she died in A.D. 28) and Ovid to Tomis at the same time. The one behind the dynastic manoeuverings in Augustus' family was his wife, Livia, who sought to chase away all candidates to succession, so that her son Tiberius may ascend the throne. Tiberius had been born in 42 B.C., from the marriage of Livia to Titus Claudius Nero. Fate, bravely endured by Livia, made Augustus adopt Tiberius; Augustus died in A.D. 14, unhappy because none of his direct heirs were still alive to succeed him. The male descendent of niece Julia (the result of her relationship with Ovid) would have added, from Livia's point of view, an unnecessary com­plication to the succession issue, which she had so carefully prepared in paving the way for her son.
However, Augustus agreed to adopt Tiberius in A.D. 4 on the following condition: after the death, in the same year, of the two grandsons (his daughter Julia Maior's sons), Gaius and Lucius, Agrippa Postumus be coadopted (who was Julia Maior's third son, born after his father's death in A.D. 12 and the preadoption by Tiberius of Germanicus, Livia's nephew. In this series of adoptions, Livia had the most advantageous position (through her son and nephew.)
Ovid took along in his exile the manuscript of Fastes (which had been conceived to include 12 books), remained half written (Tristia, II, 549). The poet had dedicated it to Augustus, but, after the emperor's death, Ovid writes in his letter to Sullinius (Epistulae ex Ponto, IV, 8) that the poem would be dedicated to Germanicus, a poet himself. Germanicus became in A.D. 17 the supreme commander in the East, and his questor was Sullinius, who was married to Ovid's step daughter. So, Ovid hoped to obtain an annulement of his exile this way. But he died that very year, at the age of 60, and shortly after, Germanicus fell out of Tiberius' favour (A.D. 19) being poisoned before the end of the year.
Any hope that the body of the exiled be returned to Rome, perhaps by his brother Licius, was gone with the disgrace and death of Germanicus. As against our conjectural analysis, the greatest living historian of the Roman world, Sir Ronald Syme (The Roman Revolution, Oxford, reprinted in 1974, p. 468) thinks that "error" must have been something vulgar and underhanded, having nothing to do with serious dynastic issues, and Augustus, in order to drive away attention from the scandalous behaviour of his niece Julia (a very powerful argument in the hands of the adversaries of the one who, at the time when he was still just Octavian, had killed tens of thousands of "proscribed" persons), chose an innocent man, a scapegoat, whom he exiled to drive away attention from the real cause of the scandal. This scapegoat was at the same time a poet who had not cooperated in Augustus' work to regenerate the state, moreover, he had dared treat in a "didactic" manner, in fact with unforgiving and unforgivable irony, the serious issues that the Prince was interested in, including them in the "policies and battles of love". So he was exiled by the mere auctoritas of Augustus, without any legal procedure (Tristia, II, 131132: nec mea decreto damnasti facta senatus/ nec mea selecto iudice issua fuga est meaning: "My deeds you did not condemn by decision of the Senate/ Nor has any judge sent me into exile").
How did Ovid live in Tomis? Despite his lamentations, it was not really unbearable. In an attempt to impress his readers, he changed the geoethnographic facts, so over the centuries these created confusions, as the Scythians around Callatis (Mangalia) were called Sarmatians because they had settled there coming from the Danube delta. He says he was not understood by anybody (Tristia, V, 10, 3738), although he spoke Greek, as he had studied rhetoric in Athens. He does not say a word about the Greeks in the city, as if only Getae lived there, although the city was Greek and it is the Greeks who had elected him agonothetos with the occasion of ceremonies organized at Augustus' death (Ex Ponto, IV, 9, 101116; Greek perfidy or poetic praising full of vain hopes?) We can infer from this a certain local preoccupation with the cruel fate of the poet, but we cannot infer support for his wish to be called back to Rome.
What was the juridical aspect of the relations between Tomis and Rome? Before Ovid arrived at Tomis, the Western shore of the Black Sea had been organized by Augustus as praefectura orae maritimae, the prefecture of the sea shore, subordinated to the proconsul of Macedonia. In A.D. 15, Tiberius established the Moesia province, and the prefecture was subordinated now to the governor of the new province. Ovid mentions the name of the first prefectus orae maritimae, Vestalia, in office as early as A.D. 12 (Ex Ponto, IV, 7, 15). Tomis was issuing its own bronze coins, but having the emperor's face engraved on them. The city enjoyed the status of civitas foederata (allied city) and perhaps that of civitas libera et immunis (free city exempt from taxes). In 46, Claudius included Dobrudja (Ripa Thraciae) into the Roman province Moesia. The attacks staged by the Dacians South of the Danube, especially those in A.D. 86, when the legatus of the Moesia province, Oppius Sabinus, died, persuaded Domitianus to divide into two the vast land of Moesia, establishing thus two out of one administrative unit: Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior (to the East, up to the Black Sea).
It is very likely that the people of Tomis honoured Ovid with a decent tomb, but definitely not a monumental one, as the poet himself noticed just how poor they were, as they could not repair the walls of their city, and the barbarians entered it any time they pleased (Tristia, II, 7, 68: Pontica finitima terra sub hoste iacet).
During archaeological diggings done on a great area in Constanţa (19591962), when the modern city was reconstructed, Vasile Canarache and his team searched in vain for Ovid's grave, which forerunners used to think was a marble sarcophagus without an epigraph. But that turned out to be the tomb of one of the city's agoranoms. But the now visible enclosure of Tomis dates from the 3rd century A.C., the one dating from Ovid time being much further in the interior of the old city, replaced now by modern foundations, starting with the Turkish rule period. There is no hope of finding the tomb outside those walls.
Regarding the allegation according to which Ovid's ashes were returned to Rome and laid in a special tomb, the political situation proved against that (Julia Minor dies in exile, A.D. 28). Later, the ever more difficult issue of material resources appeared, as well as the question on how many were still interested in such a pious action. The immediate heirs are not necessarily the ones to do that. This is a conclusive example in support of the above. About the year A.D. 238, Roman Lucius Anninus Octavius Valerianus died in Dacia, at his estate close to Romula (Reşca).
His grave there is more than humble, his body being covered with tiles on which his name was written, with an elegiac verse that can also be found on the figurative cover of the sarcophagus discovered in Rome, in the immediate suburb area of via Appia, now in the new Lateran museum, moved over to the Vatican. If a difficult situation lasting for a few months determined the entombment of Octavius Valerianus in Dacia, where his body remained, not being cremated and his ashes not being transported to Rome, what can be expected in the case of a political ban, as Ovid's? On the other hand we can imagine the cost of a funerary monument. The owner of a rich estate could afford the luxury of a sarcophagus, in a period of economic recession and political instability, at the time of Maximin the Thracian. The Haters, in the much better times of the Flaviuses, as rich entrepreneurs in building, erected a family tomb richly decorated with reliefs, a sign of wealth. Eurysaces, the supplier of bread for the army around Rome, under the command of Julius Caesar, erected a tomb in the form of an oven, next to Porta Maggiore. Would the family of a poet have the money to build such a stone construction?
The tombs of Augustus and of Hadrianus, as well as the base having a funerary function of Trajan's Column, were emptied of their urns and sarcophaguses. We know no other tomb or sarcophagus of an emperor. No grave of any literary man has been preserved, nor of any philosopher. Cicero was proud of the fact that while he was quaestor in Sicily, in 75 B.C., he discovered the neglected grave of Archimedes (285212 B.C.) and he drew the attention of the important men of Syracuse on this lack of piety toward one of the city's greatest citizens (Cicero, Discussions at Tusculum, V, 64 ff.) This was the situation earlier than a century and a half after the death of the great physicist.
Horace was the first to express the idea that the written work is the humanist's most enduring grave, using a term with numerous modern connotations (Exegi monumentum aere perennius). This is an important moment in the assertion of the GreekLatin culture and traditional cosmos. Ovid prepared for himself an everlasting tomb in his Tristia and Epistulae, as, despite the hopes and all the interceding meant to put an end to his exile, he knew well in the depth of his soul that the "error" that had vexed high interests would never be forgiven in his lifetime, as Augustus' niece was involved. Perhaps before the very end he accepted the thought that his ashes would be left at Tomis and be lost, on the Pontus Euxinus shores, and that the world would only know his verse. The integral preservation, except for a tragedy, Medea, of the work of an ancient poet is surely the most pious homage paid to him in time. 
Before Dante, in the long series of Latin satirists, epigramists and comedy writers, Ovid personally assumed the unfortunate consequences that his work, as an integral and enduring part of the culture cosmos could have over the creator and his relations with those in power, giving him thus the aura of a hero of humanism. Through him, Rome is once again the ancient cradle of the Romanticism of damned poets whose generic epitaph can be made up of Lamartine's verses (Le Poète mourant):
„Le poète est semblable aux oiseaux de passage
Qui ne se posent jamais sur le rivage; 
Nonchalamment bercés dans le courant de l'onde 
Ils passent en chantant loin des bords et le monde 
Ne connaît rien d'eux que leur voix!”




 Spartacus


Spartacus lead the famous slave revolt against the Romans and has  since been immortalized by Hollywood and Pop Culture. After breaking free with his ragtag army, Spartacus and his men headed towards Pompeii to hide out. No one knows how many men Spartacus had in his army at this time, but 3000 Roman legionnaires were dispatched to deal with him. Spartacus led his army to the peak of Mount Vesuvius, and there awaited the Romans. The legions not wanting to fight on unfamiliar ground, decided to wait him out. Spartacus made ladders and ropes out of vines, and climbed down the other side of Mount Vesuvius. His men encircled the Romans and slaughtered them. After this victory he was able to outfit all of his men the finest arms and armor.

This loss frustrated the Senate, and they sent two larger armies after Spartacus. Instead of waiting for the Romans to come to him, Spartacus took the offensive and attacked these legions. They too were soundly defeated. In less than a year, Spartacus army had grown to 70,000 men, and more troops rallied to his cause everyday.
After an additional two legions were lost, the Senators began to fear that Spartacus would attack Rome itself. However, Spartacus had no designs on Rome. Instead he had other plans, his idea is take his forces north and escape from Italy once and for all. Once finally free he would disband his army, and send the men to their homes in Thrace and Gaul. This however did not sit well with his men. They took courage from their victories, and felt they were unbeatable. Despite his orders, the army chose to roam north and south on the Italian peninsula, stealing and burning as they went.
By 70 B.C., the Senate was desperate. No qualified man wanted to lead the Roman legions against Spartacus. Finally, M Licinius Crassus, a very rich nobleman, agreed to accept the office of praetor.
Crassus first order of business was to raise six new legions. Crassus then took command of the four existing legions, and with 50,000 men, he sought out Spartacus. Crassus wanted to box in Spartacus, and so he sent his second in command, Mummius, to force Spartacus into his trap. In a moment of marked stupidity, Mummius decided to attack Spartacus head on. Mummius forces were crushed. Mummius led the rest of his men back to Crassus army, and he was severely reprimanded. As to his routed army, they received the customary punishment for retreating from the enemy. One out of every 10 men was slaughtered in front of the whole army. The survivors from the disgraced legions were disbanded and they were sorted into Crassus legions.
Now Crassus attacked Spartacus with the whole of his army, but Spartacus retreated. He headed south and found his army isolated on a isthmus. In a stroke of genius, Crassus ordered a wall built from coast-to-coast on the isthmus, thus sealing Spartacus in.
Realizing he was trapped, Spartacus did all that he could do, and attempted to break out. His army was repulsed, and 6000 of his man were killed. In contrast only three Romans were killed in seven wounded in the battle.
Spartacus tried to wait Crassus out, but discovered that Roman reinforcements were on the way. Spartacus made arrangements with some Cicillian pirates, but instead of rescuing his men, they took the gold and deserted him.
Seeing no other option, Spartacus led a breakout. Although he lost many men, Spartacus made good his escape...for a short time. While retreating towards the Alps, Spartacus found himself cut off by another Roman army. This army had been serving in Macedonia, but was recalled to assist in Spartacus destruction.
Spartacus was caught! He did the only thing he can do. He turned and engaged Crassus in a decisive battle. Spartacus led the army personally, in the fighting was brutal. At one point, Spartacus was wounded and dropped to one knee. He continued to fight until he is finally overwhelmed. His army was thrown into disarray, and butchered.
So many of Spartacus men were slain, that an accurate accounting of the dead was impossible. We know the Romans lost just over 1000 men. Spartacus body was never found, but the Romans were quick to crush any rumors that he had escaped. In the aftermath of the battle, 6000 of Spartacus men, that had been taken alive, were crucified along the road back to Rome. Spartacus died in Lucania during the battle at the river Silarus which involved tens of thousands of men. According to Plutarch (46 BC-c.122 BC), "Finally, after his companions had taken to flight, he  stood alone, surrounded by a multitude of foes, and was still defending himself when he was cut down". Another document written by Appian of Alexandria (c.95BC-c.165BC) stated that "The fight was long, and bitterly contested, since so many tens of thousands of men had no other hope. Spartacus was wounded in the thigh with a spear and sank upon his knee, holding his shield in front of him and contending in this way against his assailants until he and the great mass of those with him were surrounded and slain". 
It's not surprising that the body of the slave who challenged the might and the power of Ancient Rome has never been found.
 Captain Kidd







Legendary pirate. He was born in Greenock, Scotland. He emigrated to New York. During trip to England, Kidd was offered a privateer's commission for the purpose of attacking pirates by noble lords. Kidd had to sell his ship the Antigua to raise funds. The new ship, the Adventure Galley, was equipped with 34 cannons and 150 men. However Kidd’s enterprise was not a success. After taking a single French ship (which was legal for him) on the first leg of his voyage, to New York, he proceeded to Madagascar but was not able to find pirates. 
Under pressure from his men he started taking any vessels which were not English, or, which had at least a French passenger aboard. Legally he was only allowed to take French and pirate vessels. Kidd’s actions became increasingly more like those of a pirate than an agent of the English King. On October 30, 1697 a dispute broke out with one William Moore over whether to pursue a Dutch ship encountered. Moore and the other men of the crew wanted to take the Dutch ship but Captain Kidd refused, In a subsequent fight a few days later, Kidd threw an ironbound bucket at Moore which killed him. 
On January 30, 1698 Kidd took an English ship called the Quedah Merchant but later realised that he had in fact captured an English ship. Kidd tried to persuade his crew to return the ship to its owners but they refused. In 1698 Kidd reached Madagascar where he found the first pirate of his voyage, Robert Culliford, the Mocha Frigate. Kidd ordered his men to capture the Mocha Frigate but except 13 of his men, the crew mutinied and joined the pirates of the Mocha Frigate. With the loyal crew, he returned home in the captured Quedah Merchant. After arriving to New York City, he was arrested and sent to England to stand trial and imprisoned in the infamous Newgate Prison. 
On May 8-9 he was tried by the High Court of Admirality and found guilty of piracy on high-seas and murder of a crewman. Kidd was hanged on May 23, 1701 at Execution Dock in Wapping, London. During the execution; hangman's rope broke and Kidd could be hanged on the second attempt. His body was left to hang in an iron cage at Tilbery Point over the river Thames, London, as a warning to future pirates until it was totally decomposed. His adventures inspired Edgar Allen Poe's "The Gold Bug" and Louis Stevenson's "The Treasure Island"

Captain Kidd died protesting his innocence claiming papers vital for his defence, showing his treasure was legitimate booty fighting the French, were stolen just before his trial.
They were eventually discovered in 1911 — two centuries too late to save his neck.
It's even believed that Captain Kidd buried some of his treasures at the notorious Oak Island...


 Gilgamesh





The legendary Giant King Gilgamesh was the first hero of  the ancient world. The poem that describes his tales The Epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest known book in history. It even had a flood myth almost identical to the one found in the Bible thousands of years later. Like Hercules, Gilgamesh was such a mythical figure, that the idea of locating his tomb seemed unrealistic and a fantasy. Then in 2003 a German group of archaeologists shocked the world when they announced they had discovered his ancient lost tomb near a dried up area of the Euphrates river in Northern Iraq. Not surprisingly the Iraq war broke out shortly after any all news of the discovery was never announced again. It's curious that the first place the American and Nato forces entered was the Baghdad museum, which they promptly looted. What were they looking for? Did they find ancient alien technology?

The original BBC article:


The Epic Of Gilgamesh - written by a Middle Eastern scholar 2,500 years before the birth of Christ - commemorated the life of the ruler of the city of Uruk, from which Iraq gets its name. Now, a German-led expedition has discovered what is thought to be the entire city of Uruk - including, where the Euphrates once flowed, the last resting place of its famous King.
"I don't want to say definitely it was the grave of King Gilgamesh, but it looks very similar to that described in the epic," Jorg Fassbinder, of the Bavarian department of Historical Monuments in Munich, told the BBC World Service's Science in Action programme. In the book - actually a set of inscribed clay tablets - Gilgamesh was described as having been buried under the Euphrates, in a tomb apparently constructed when the waters of the ancient river parted following his death.
"We found just outside the city an area in the middle of the former Euphrates river¿ the remains of such a building which could be interpreted as a burial," Mr Fassbinder said. He said the amazing discovery of the ancient city under the Iraqi desert had been made possible by modern technology.
"By differences in magnetisation in the soil, you can look into the ground," Mr Fassbinder added.
"The difference between mudbricks and sediments in the Euphrates river gives a very detailed structure."
This creates a magnetogram, which is then digitally mapped, effectively giving a town plan of Uruk.
'Venice in the desert'
"The most surprising thing was that we found structures already described by Gilgamesh," Mr Fassbinder stated. "We covered more than 100 hectares. We have found garden structures and field structures as described in the epic, and we found Babylonian houses."
But he said the most astonishing find was an incredibly sophisticated system of canals.
"Very clearly, we can see in the canals some structures showing that flooding destroyed some houses, which means it was a highly developed system.
"[It was] like Venice in the desert."
Gilgamesh was an interesting figure and the discovery of his body would be a huge deal, especially if it was more than 13 feet tall! The Book of Giants, recovered from the Dead sea scrolls mentions the King Gilgamesh as one of the mighty antediluvian Nephilim giants who ruled before the flood. Gilgamesh was the historical ruler and builder of the city of Uruk nearly 5,000 years ago. He was said to have been 1/3 man and 2/3 god, his father was a phantom, and his mother a goddess. Hittite sources place his height at 11 cubits, or 16 - 18 feet. The Bible records the dimensions of the Nephilim King Og of Bashan, of the tribe of god-kings called the Rephaim who ruled over the Amorites in Canaan. Deut. 3:11 gives us his size. "For only Og king of Bashan was left of the remnant of the Rephaim. Behold, his bedstead was an iron bedstead... nine cubits was its length, and 4 cubits was its breadth" 

This indicates the Nephilim king Og was about 14 feet tall and 6 feet wide. These are the giants who made the Hebrews feel like grasshoppers. They were worshiped as Gods by the Canaanites. At the ancient 1200 BC Amorite temple of Ain Dara in Syria, several huge 3 foot long footprints are clearly visible in the courtyard leading into the sanctuary of the temple. The giant or God who is credited to them must have been 18 - 20 feet tall. The Bible records the dimensions of the Nephilim King Og of Bashan, of the tribe of god-kings called the Rephaim who ruled over the Amorites in Canaan. Deut. 3:11 gives us his size. "For only Og king of Bashan was left of the remnant of the Rephaim. Behold, his bedstead was an iron bedstead... nine cubits was its length, and 4 cubits was its breadth"
This indicates the Nephilim king Og was about 14 feet tall and 6 feet wide. These are the giants who made the Hebrews feel like grasshoppers.

They were worshiped as Gods by the Canaanites. At the ancient 1200 BC Amorite temple of Ain Dara in Syria, several huge 3 foot long footprints are clearly visible in the courtyard leading into the sanctuary of the temple. The giant or God who is credited to them must have been 18 - 20 feet tall.


The discovery of Gilgamesh would be a big deal historically, but unfortunately it stands to surmise that the NWO would suppress the discovery with an iron fisted quickness. The tomb's discoverer Professor Fassbinder can be reached Here

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4 comments:

  1. Always amazing to read what the archeologist DON'T know.
    We have computers that can calculates millions of calculations in a second, we can send rockets to the moon(?) we can talk to friends and family on the other side of the planet, but we don't know anything.
    We don't why the pyramids were built, we don't know why the Indians built mounds, we don't know what electricity, magnetism, gravity is, we know little about our oceans ,etc, etc, etc.
    And yet we are lead to believe we are the best the brightest the smartest.
    It's time to have a reality check.
    Some of the dead you described here as ruthless, savage, warmongers and you don't know who they were or what their real purpose was for doing what they did.
    No wonder that the human race is fast approaching extinction.
    But I ask you would that be a bad thing?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Uh,we know what electricity, magnetism and gravity are.We also know what pyramids and burial mounds were used for.Your just stupid and easily led by television. You fucking moron.

      Delete
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